A certain Professor of Statistics is trying to explain to his grandson that once an event has happened its probability of happening is 1 because it is certain that it happened. The grandson disagrees.

The grandson throws a pair of dice and as they are about to settle puts a bowl over them, preventing the Professor from seeing the result. The grandson then peeks at the dice, knowing the value. He then explains that he could now show these dice to an infinite number of people, other than the professor, and yet the professor still could not declare with certainty what the result was, despite the fact that on average, everybody knew!

What can we say with certainty about this situation?

Author: Leslie Green (Leslie is not a Professor of Statistics)